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After several columns replete with lacuna, the reconstructed scroll begins taking shape around columns V—VII. Although several fragmentary passages in the first few columns suggest descent—ascent imagery of some kind, there is far too much damage to definitively discuss the options here. Thus I begin with one of the first discernible psalms, found in cols. A similar context occurs in col. Thus whether intentionally or as the subconscious result of traditional religious language the composer of this hodayah employs a distinct word choice found elsewhere only in Ps Though we have a rare word that occurs only in the nature image of Ps 34, the language of exaltation is distinct from that psalm.

The hodayah does speak of the author being purified from iniquity VII , but that is somewhat detached from the image of exaltation which is 60 The first seven lines of col. VIII are missing and lines 8—12 are severely damaged. It is entirely possible that the conclusion of one psalm and opening of another are missing. Nevertheless, these lacuna do not affect the lines of interest to this essay. The next hodayah that takes up clear descent—ascent imagery does so in the context of deliverance from death.

This imagery appears in a suggested psalm of col. XI—37 and begins similarly to Ps [ET ]. XI—21 The syntax and structure is not a direct match with Ps , so I would not call it a quotation. To the point of my argument, it can be stated reasonably that these lines display a minor resemblance to the thanksgiving psalm of Ps However, the resemblance is no greater than the apparent resemblance to other biblical passages. I think some preferential treatment may be afforded to the biblical thanksgiving psalms when looking at cross-references and connexions.

Indeed, elsewhere in this hodayah col. XI—37 and Ps Thus combining the theophanic language of the hodayah with the torrents and waves imagery, Hughes sees 61 Holm-Nielsen, Hodayot, Another hodayah uses descent—ascent imagery in a deliverance context, but with a referent not found in the biblical thanksgiving psalms. When the author does come to the point of deliverance it is not through descent—ascent imagery, but in the language of instruction col.

The only raising up that we do encounter is more reminiscent of Isaiah than anything found in the thanksgiving psalms. In col. XIV the raising up of a remnant takes over the focus of the hodayah. Ultimately the descent—ascent paradigm for deliverance is not nearly as pronounced in the Hodayot as it is in the biblical psalms of individual thanksgiving. This was to be expected given that deliverance from illness is not as predominant as the state of removal experienced 62 Hughes, XIV and five to six lines between cols.

XIV and XV are missing and may have contained the division between two hodayot. Nevertheless, we did encounter at least one such example in col. We also saw descent and ascent imagery whose use was dissimilar to what we encountered in the biblical psalms. This may be an intended use of allusion or it may be the result of the author reaching into a stock of illustrative terms and images to enhance his own poetry, but with an independent function.


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In the latter case the descent—ascent imagery would not need to be restricted to the deliverance narrative as was often the case in the Psalms. Thus the most we can say at this point is that the Hodayot, which do share a structure and purpose with the biblical thanksgiving psalms, also include some descent—ascent imagery common to the biblical psalms, but that the Hodayot are far less consistent and uniform in when and how such imagery is used. The evidence of these hodayot being carefully crafted speaks against the assumption that it is a disintegration of the old form.

Rather it seems more likely that it is the result of maintaining and building upon the traditional form. Nature Imagery In contrast to how the Hodayot use descent—ascent imagery less frequently and less consistently than the biblical thanksgiving psalms, the nature imagery employed in these poems is perhaps even more pervasive than what is found in their biblical predecessors.

In fact, nature imagery appears to be one of the favourite devices of the Hodayot. For my discussion of the Hodayot I will maintain the same delineation of nature imagery as was employed for the psalms examined above see page 14, note This will include images of vegetation, wild animals, seasons, and geographical features.

Thus a notable exclusion is the abundant use of human anatomy imagery within the Hodayot. Though regrettable, this is necessary for the essay to adhere to word limitations. These occurrences deserve special attention. However, I will also give due attention to nature imagery not seen in the biblical Psalms. Such images may bear resemblance to other passages of the OT or be relatively independent. Either way this facet of Hodayot analysis will be crucial to my final discussion of the resemblance and possible connexions between the early biblical thanksgiving psalms and the later Hodayot of Qumran.

Apparent Similarities in Nature Imagery I have already noted how the condition of 1QHa makes discerning the division between individual hodayot difficult. Also, lacuna in unfortunate places rob us of the context that would inform some phrases. While these similarities deserve attention, I must note the times when greater similarity, and perhaps influence, can be found with other biblical texts. When comparing the Hodayot with the Psalms, one must be aware of misleading similarities. In Ps 18 storm imagery relays a theophany of Yahweh descending to rescue the king.

IX the spreading of the heavens begins a section of celestial creation and sea imagery spanning from 65 E. VII make further poetic analysis futile. See also col. Ps However, it does give us cause for careful scrutiny when examining how closely the Hodayot resemble the Psalms. The religious language of the biblical prophets may prove to be just as influential as the traditional religious poetry of the Psalms in shaping the composition of the Hodayot and their resemblance to the former.

The influence of the prophets is seen again with the stormy sea imagery of col. X— 15, In these passages the author compares his wicked adversaries to the roar of stormy seas and crashing waves that toss up mud and slime.

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Holm-Nielsen claims that the image is undoubtedly influenced by Isa In these biblical references the roaring of mighty waters is a description of Yahweh. X we have a simile for the wicked who are plotting against the author.

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In this case I do not think that Ps , albeit a 67 Isa ; ; ; ; ; Jer ; ; Zech Job X, though it may prove more similar than the prophetic passages that use the roar of many waters to describe Yahweh. I think the safest route is to see line 18 as continuing with the image of lines 14—15 which so clearly reflect Isa But it is remarkable how the quotations have been woven together to form an entity.

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Its accumulation of images from various passages in the OT makes it nearly impossible to speak of it in terms of resemblance. In every poetic colon multiple words and images are sewn together from various psalms and prophets. Two examples will suffice. First in col. Surely this is a quite distant image from what is seen in col. Thus I would claim a closer resemblance between col.

X and the prophetic passages just cited. Nevertheless it is worth noting that only Ps uses the fire becoming extinguished among thorns image similarly to how col. X uses the devouring fire as a simile for the spear of the enemy. They are used similarly even if in a converse manner. This first example shows just how many biblical passages may be in view and not mutually exclusive given the mosaic nature of the hodayah.

The second example of how resemblance is difficult to assess on account of the mosaic style of this hodayah is col. Here another occurrence of the roar of many waters image refers to the tumultuous shout of the adversary. The next example is quite different in that it leans more specifically towards one psalm, and an individual thanksgiving psalm at that. XI this extended imagery is used to advance the worsening fate and eventual demise of the wicked enemies of the psalmist. They cry out to Yahweh and are delivered Ps These two examples from col.

XI—16 show a fairly close resemblance to the imagery of Ps —27 while also working towards a different end. In Ps —32 the people give thanks for the stilling of the waters that robbed them of their courage. XI:6—19 the author gives thanks that the iniquitous are not spared and that he has been delivered from them col. The final example of imagery with apparent resemblance to biblical psalms of thanksgiving is col.

This lengthy section is almost entirely comprised of garden 76 Ibid. See Schuller and Newsom, I remain unconvinced of the possibility of a conjunctive use. Elsewhere we see a fount of life in focus. In the biblical psalm the righteous are planted in the temple of Yahweh, flourishing like the palm tree, growing like a cedar in Lebanon, and bearing fruit in old age.

XVI—11 where the same rare roots are employed. In a hodayah replete with biblical imagery, the language of Ps 92 blends in inventively. It is not given prominence, however, and thus no claim can be made on the intentionality of including language from a biblical thanksgiving psalm in this hodayah. Indeed imagery from across the psalms and prophets are present in this poem just as has been apparent throughout this section.

The Hodayot do share a similar structure and purpose with the biblical thanksgiving psalms. When it comes to the use of nature imagery, the blending together of images from across the OT confounds much of our ability to speak of resemblance.


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Nevertheless, several comparisons may be made by way of conclusion, and by that we may set the stage for continued and further discussion on the poetry found in both the Psalms and the Hodayot. Final Comparison and Concluding Thoughts The central focus of this paper has been the validity of competing claims on the commonality of form, structure, and style between the Hodayot and the biblical individual thanksgiving 78 Holm-Nielsen, Hodayot, Of particular importance is col.

Mowinckel has been taken as representative of scholars who see later Jewish psalmody displaying marks of disintegration of the earlier forms. Holm-Nielsen has been used as the counter-claim, locating the many similarities between early and later psalmody without going so far as to claim a kind of uniformity. To test these claims I have reviewed scholarly discussions of issues such as the cultic Sitz im Leben of the Psalms and form-critical genre classifications.

Secondly I tested these claims by looking for notable resemblance in the various poetic devices that convey descent—ascent and nature imagery in the respective collections. Summary Comparison of Hodayot and Individual Thanksgiving Psalms Though the scholarship reviewed did not agree on whether or not the Hodayot of Qumran met the form-critical criteria for the thanksgiving genre, I argued in favour of the scholars who do allow the common classification. I reiterate that if we allow some poetic licence for the minor variations then the large scale similarities make the common classification defensible.

Further identification of the deliverance motif serves to strengthen the connexion between these compositions. Yet these comparisons should not be performed in a manner that dismisses the differences. Certainly historical context alone establishes abundant nuance that distinguishes the biblical psalms of individual thanksgiving from their Qumran counterparts. This facet was discussed above by distinguishing between commonly used terminology of quotation and allusion versus my favoured term: resemblance.

Since we have seen a similar introduction and structure between the thanksgiving psalms and the Hodayot, it seems reasonable to then speak of the similarity or resemblance of the images and poetic But regardless of the question how many or few instances presumably are found, it is certain that this form of use exists as a characteristic feature of Late Jewish psalm literature.

That point would be the cultic or colloquial use of traditional religious language. Such language is rooted in the Psalms as well as the Prophets and may be to a greater or lesser extent conscious or subconscious. This paper was concerned particularly with the Hodayot passages that bear resemblance in verbal and poetic ways to the biblical thanksgiving psalms.

Quickly we discovered that the phrases and images often bear resemblance to more than one passage and context in the OT. This is evident in the descent—ascent imagery but more so when we examine the nature imagery of the Hodayot. Holm-Nielsen, Hodayot, , for a similar viewpoint, [T]here are a great number of cases where it is probably, or even obvious, that the author has had one or more passages of Scripture in mind.

To what extent this is a matter of conscious quotation is, it is true, often difficult to decide. Not only is agreement frequently, indeed most frequently, limited to a few words or even to a single word, but also, in numerous cases, one can find the same word or the same phrase various places in the Old Testament…[I]t is true in a number of cases that one cannot count on there being any question of an actual use of Scripture, even when there is a complete agreement of words and phrases.

It may simply be a matter of the use of certain permanent phrases, stereotyped expressions, customary terminology, which may well have originated somewhere or other in the Old Testament, but which existed in the everyday language of the time. This would be the case, of course, particularly where it is not a matter of the ordinary language of the people, but of a special terminology, in this instance within the religious sphere. The natural question to follow would demand an explanation for how this scriptural sound can be accomplished by the poets at Qumran.

As such the language soaked into the hearts and minds of those who would compose the Hodayot for additional prayerful use however formal or informal. In this way I avoid the debates about authorship and the pitfalls of arguing for particular cultic services when at best we can argue for some cultic use about which we know too little at this time.

Holm-Nielsen poses a similar answer, though more heavily participating in the speculation that the authorship is not located amongst the laity. He writes, It is in no way the terminology of laymen which dominates this poetry; one must rather assume the opposite, inasmuch as it builds upon an extended use of Scripture, which was presumably not a matter for every man. These phenomena of Late Jewish literature are part of the stiffening of the literary forms in connection with the canonisation of the Old Testament literature into a holy, standard-setting literature, and this applies to the Law, the Prophets and the Psalms.

Thus the best author of psalms will be he who best understands how to write in an Old Testament style and with the use of Old Testament terminology. I find this to be a reasonable explanation for what we see in the Hodayot. Their introduction and structure indicate a desire to resemble earlier thanksgiving. The imagery and language at times accomplish this same, specific association.

At other times the language and imagery call to mind the prophecies of Israel and Judah which the Qumran community take in direct reference to themselves. Conclusion So while we cannot say that the Hodayot favour the imagery found in biblical thanksgiving psalms over the imagery of Isaiah or lament psalms, we can still make effective use of comparative study. We need not go as far as Mowinckel in ascribing the later psalmody to a disintegration of form or style. Rather, we can understand the Hodayot within their historical context and purpose.

Thereby we see imitation on the level of surface structure and broad genre.

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On an individual basis, each hodayah is as distinct from another as the biblical thanksgiving psalms are from each other. The final result of a study such as this is a call for more work. I have explored two particular forms of imagery across the two collections. The results show a minor amount of overlap which may be intended, incidental, or merely a part of a greater goal of achieving a biblical sound. Velri and G. The Autobiographical narrative in modern Japan. Ovid, Fasti 1. Bibliotheca Classica Batava; vol. The city of the Moon God. Brill, The Final battles of the Petersburg campaign.

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Between Hollywood and Moscow. The Eusebians. Telling stories. The Last pagans of Iraq. Studies and texts; vol. Savage peace. The British-Atlantic trading community — The Faithful shepherd. Barbarian migrations and the Roman West, — The Bridges of Medieval England. Aromatherapy: therapeutic use of essential oils for esthetics. Comparing empires. Authorized self-study guide. The Monks and monasteries of Constantinople, CA. The Forgotten prime minister. Argersinger and L. The Teotihuacan trinity. John Stewart of Baldynneis Roland Furious. Scripture and pluralism. Heffernan and Thomas E.

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Marsden Hartley and the West. Wind loading of structures. The Path not taken. Catholic resistance in Elizabethan England. Negotiating masculinities in late Imperial China. Scriptural allusions and exegesis in the Hodayot. Marriage, celibacy, and heresy in Ancient Christianity. The Danish resources c. North Europe and the Baltic c. Peoples, economies and cultures; vol. Manichaean Delirium. Daniilidis and R. Serie II; vol. Matthew and M. Longfellow Redux. Jewish and Christian traditions; vol. Balachandar and A.

New Netherland. In Ps the psalmist confesses that when he was 33 The exceptions are Pss 32; 34; and I would also list Ps 66 as an exception though the imagery of vv. The closest it comes though is in v. Ps — Nature Imagery Whether by simile or metaphor a fair number of nature images are employed in the individual thanksgiving psalms. Nature language may be expected in wisdom and torah psalms as one thinks immediately of Pss 1 and Yet the prevalence of nature images in the thanksgiving psalms now demands our attention. Only Pss 30, 40, , and lack any form of nature imagery. In the Psalms examined here nature images occur either in a lengthy cluster or as a lone simile in one stich.

Despite the prevalence of nature imagery, no poem is entirely composed via nature terminology. It all appears supplemental to the primary directive of offering thanksgiving to Yahweh. In this essay, various poetic devices will be examined that evoke images of vegetation, wild animals, seasons, and geographical features. References to the underworld via terms like pit Ps [ET ] and miry bog Ps [ET ] arguably could be seen as nature images, but will not be included in this section.

I do think it would be anachronistic to apply to the biblical texts a strict and narrow division between a natural and spiritual view of the world. However, there is notable poetic difference between a psalmist being drawn up from the miry bog of Sheol and a simile such as the wicked sprouting like grass Ps [ET ]. Thus I have decided not to include the former. Historical allusions Pss ; —9, 23—30 also are excluded as are poetic devices involving the human anatomy or anthropomorphism of Yahweh. Clustered Nature Imagery The nature imagery of Ps —16 [ET —15] is unmatched in its consistency and functionality.

Of the subsequent examples of nature image clusters, none will match the consistency and intensity of Ps This is not to diminish their poetic achievements but to accentuate the brilliant use of imagery in this passage. Psalm —12 gives a different style of cluster from that of Pss 18, 92, and Whereas the latter attempt consistency within one nature image, Ps 66 strings together assorted images all of which relate loosely to the historical allusion of the Red Sea salvation vv.

With some hesitancy I also suggest the possibility of a nature image in v. If such an image is disallowed from consideration then we are left with the metallurgy image of vv. Psalm 92 has a few isolated nature images in vv.

Of particular importance is how this psalm ends in vv. The extended imagery of trees in vv. In these verses the imagery depicts the fruitful prosperity of the righteous in order to declare the uprightness of Yahweh. In this way the image performs the proper function of a thanksgiving psalm. Where the genre requires an address to the attendant congregation to thank Yahweh, Psalm 92 provides a vivid image from nature to establish the attendant circumstances that produce this praise of Yahweh by the righteous. After a historical allusion in Ps —30, verses 31—32 call for thanksgiving, signalling a transition in the psalm.

Beginning in v. On the other hand, for the hungry v. The hungry dwell there and build a city where they prosper by Yahweh who blesses their fields, vineyards v. Though one might read this stanza as imaginative narration, the agricultural imagery serves a select purpose. The nature imagery is used to further the narrative section of this thanksgiving psalm, detailing through nature the blessing of Yahweh for which the people give thanks. Isolated Instances of Nature Imagery Though the clusters of nature imagery examined above may seem more impactful, the isolated similes and metaphors are no less effective at aiding the poem and the poetic genre in its expression.

We have already seen how the single simile of the wicked being like grass in Ps [ET ] could be used to balance an entire stanza of imagery later in the psalm. Therefore, now I will examine the similes and metaphors that occur in relative isolation from other nature imagery and offer an explanation for their poetic effect on the individual thanksgiving psalms in which they occur. In a lengthy stanza on how Yahweh equips the king for warfare Ps —43 [ET —42] , two unrelated similes occur, one at the beginning and the other at the end. The presence of a nature simile remains regardless of the variant readings.

Psalm 32 offers three separate nature images which assist with the thanksgiving form of the psalm.


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The first occurs in a stanza where the psalmist details his beaten down state as a result of his silence vv. And the third appears to be in the section serving as an address to the attendant congregation. In vv. The latter would more closely fit the genre though the former would not be incompatible with this. Where the simile in v. A few more nature images appear more challenging if not arbitrary. Beyond its location in the address to the congregation little can be said. Likewise, the simile in Ps [ET ] seems to have fleeting significance. As fleeting as it may be, it is hardly arbitrary.

The image of the wild ox lifting its horns does not merely fill in the accent count or meter. Rather it provides an image of power and authority in the anointing of the psalmist to be contrasted with the doom and downfall of his enemies. Finally, we also find nature images that are somewhat common to the Psalms and Prophets. Psalm and employ the stock images of the people as sheep and families like flocks, respectively.

Of course, the obscurity does make the MT the lectio difficilor. Without any other significant variants, I am inclined to leave the phrase as is. We see in the case of both nature imagery and descent—ascent imagery that they are used to enhance the proper task of the thanksgiving psalm. The nature imagery, on the other hand, is found in a variety of contexts within the tripartite structure of the thanksgiving psalms. Thus as I move forward to analyse the poetry of the Hodayot I will look for resemblance not only in what imagery is used but how it is used in the structure of the genre as composed at Qumran.

The Hodayot and Their Poetry Having already explained why the Hodayot, rather than the Odes and Psalms of Solomon comprise the primary focus of this paper, allow me to proceed with a summary of Hodayot research, especially pertaining to poetic content and research in biblical comparison. After this orientation, I will proceed with analysis of the columns and discernible psalms from 1QHa. Esther G. Chazon with the collaboration of R. Clements and A. The question of biblical quotation in the Hodayot is oft discussed and will be taken up below.

Before arriving at that question, however, I must first endeavour to explain the appropriateness of comparing the Hodayot with the biblical thanksgiving psalms. As will be seen straightaway this question has produced much disagreement. Yet in none of these compositions is God addressed in the third person, a standard form-critical criterion for biblical hymns.

Schuller simply cannot disassociate the Hodayot and biblical psalms of thanksgiving on the grounds that the former do not make use of the third person. It would be better to examine how both make comparable use of the second person. If anything the form-critical criterion should be altered if a different grammatical trend appears. Of the biblical sample set examined in this paper, only Pss 34, , and lack the use of second person addresses to 43 Schuller, Psalm 30 is almost entirely directed towards Yahweh in the second person.

Psalm 30 thus illustrates the grammatical and syntactical variety available within a fixed form. Verses 5—6 provide the testimonial address to the attendant congregation, yet the narrative section has a predominant use of second person object pronouns, perfect, imperfect, and imperative verbs. Additionally, the two royal psalms that are often held to be early precursors of the thanksgiving genre are replete with second person addresses to Yahweh along side the declaratory third person language.

Though this paper is not primarily concerned with the reduction in third person language, I would contend that this aspect of the Hodayot does not disqualify them from being classified as thanksgiving psalms akin to those found in the Psalms. A second argument against the association of the Hodayot with the biblical psalms of thanksgiving is one of content rather than syntax. The biblical psalms were composed in a quite different context than the Hodayot.

Only if the Hodayot 44 Cf. Pss —7; —12 [ET —11]; —15; —11 [ET —10]; , 16—17; , 25, So as reasonable as this objection is, I hesitate to see how it should disqualify the Hodayot from being classified as thanksgiving. It certainly should not disallow the comparative study of the Hodayot with the biblical thanksgiving psalms. Thus I allow the two periods of poetry to be compared with one another, with the understanding that a significant historical and contextual difference must be kept in mind.

Dombrowski-Hopkins offers another insight that seems to remove the classification of the Hodayot as thanksgiving.

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In this instance, she believes that the content itself does little to distinguish these psalms as specifically thanksgiving. That is to say that they could just as easily be classified as laments, hymns, or a combination of praise and meditative reflection. However, many of the biblical psalms also mix in elements of other form-critical genres.

If the biblical psalms themselves do not uniformly adhere to the categories with which scholarship classifies them, how strict must we be with the later collection? Once more I would encourage the form-critical criteria to be more flexible lest we find ourselves with as many different genres as we have psalms. Although I have rejected most of these objections, I must agree that any comparative study of the biblical thanksgiving psalms and the Hodayot cannot be an unqualified comparison.

The different times and circumstances of their composition alone warrant serious scholarly scrutiny of both similarities and differences. Bearing this in mind, I now turn my attention to a few scholars who also allow the comparison between these two psalm 47 Ibid. Early in the academic study of the Hodayot, Lou Silberman recognized that the Hodayot often match the criteria set out by Gunkel, but with the narrative occasionally set in second person references to God whereas the biblical narrative portion is often in third person.

Equally important is the acknowledgment to God that it is he who is the deliverer from anguish. Bonnie Kittel, in her study of the poetic structure of the Hodayot, looks to address the problem of how the terminology used in discussion of biblical Hebrew poetry is inadequate for engaging the Hodayot. There are elements of the lament or complaint, of penitence, of petition, and of hymnic praise, and other sections of apocalyptic character quite unlike any in the psalter. This in itself is not too disturbing to form critics; Gunkel had already discerned this development toward a mixed type in late poetry.

Indeed the Hodayot make a creative and wide use of language and imagery from across the OT, the Psalms and Isaiah appearing most frequently. In numerous places the text sounds virtually like a mosaic of biblical phrases and quotations, especially from the later books of 50 See also, John J. Attridge and M. What is the best way to describe this facet of Hodayot poetry?

Svend Holm-Nielsen may be one of the greatest authorities on the Hodayot and his own position raises such terminological questions. Throughout his translation and commentary Holm-Nielsen discusses biblical quotation, inspiration, and allusion. Yet he does not adequately define any of these terms or qualify the differences between them. This happens to be a significant criticism of Holm-Nielsen offered by Kittel. Some Hodayot passages of greater or lesser length use exact words or phrases from the OT. Other passages seem to allude to events or images.

Still others may be connected on a different level called inspiration. We may assume that Holm- Nielsen is not speaking of direct references as one might find in the New Testament. Are they intentional or subconscious? At that point we are left with little more than speculation. Yet Holm-Nielsen goes on to say, In some cases the wording is so general and frequently found that it is hardly due to literary dependence, but rather to usage of traditional religious language. But apart from this the poems often allude to and rely on biblical passages.

Sometimes expressions of similar meaning or wording from scattered places in the Bible are combined into a meaningful piece of writing. This is no dull imitation, but indicates to how great an extent the community in Qumran felt itself tied to biblical tradition. However, the terms reference, allusion, and quotation are all too unclear. One can fairly surmise by reading the Hodayot that they are quite familiar with the biblical writings. At the same time one cannot with any certainty claim a definitive amount of dependence so that allusion, inspiration, reference, and quotation become defensible terms.

Could not the traditional religious language alone serve as a simple explanation for a string of words that might be deemed a quotation? This is an issue of authorial intent that I do not believe can be answered in a satisfying manner. Though this too is hypothetical, I think resemblance is a more defensible term than those that imply authorial intent. As we have seen, scholars have recognized a similar form between the individual thanksgiving psalms and the Hodayot. The purpose of thanking Yahweh is the same regardless of how the cultic act of thanks has changed.

As I will explore below, the Hodayot themselves take up much of the same imagery that defines the biblical genre, even while it weaves in themes and vocabulary from Isaiah and elsewhere. Finally, the prevalent nature imagery of the Hodayot will be analysed and compared with that of the biblical psalms studied above. For reference purposes, I will provide the column and line numbers of 1QHa when discussing a text. Descent—Ascent Imagery and the Theme of Deliverance Earlier I argued that the noticeable dissimilarities between the Hodayot and biblical thanksgiving psalms were not grounds for disassociation.

Rather, one would do better to keep in mind the differences of context and content while proceeding with comparative research. At this juncture we find ourselves at an interesting crossroads related to the expressed use of the respective sets of thanksgiving psalms. John Collins notes a difference that is of immediate importance for our comparison of the descent—ascent imagery. Rather, they give thanks for a state of being: the sanctified, quasi-angelic life of members of the sectarian community.

Translations are my own except where other translations are noted for comparison. Thus, in the midst of persecution, thanksgiving is made for the deliverance already experienced as well as for that anticipated at the imminent last judgment. The fact that the Hodayot maintain some descent—ascent imagery common to the biblical psalms, while not necessarily sharing the occasions of rescue from sickness and danger as Collins has claimed, is quite intriguing.

After several columns replete with lacuna, the reconstructed scroll begins taking shape around columns V—VII. Although several fragmentary passages in the first few columns suggest descent—ascent imagery of some kind, there is far too much damage to definitively discuss the options here. Thus I begin with one of the first discernible psalms, found in cols. A similar context occurs in col. Thus whether intentionally or as the subconscious result of traditional religious language the composer of this hodayah employs a distinct word choice found elsewhere only in Ps Though we have a rare word that occurs only in the nature image of Ps 34, the language of exaltation is distinct from that psalm.

The hodayah does speak of the author being purified from iniquity VII , but that is somewhat detached from the image of exaltation which is 60 The first seven lines of col. VIII are missing and lines 8—12 are severely damaged.