Theories are accepted because they provide satisfactory explanations, but they can be modified if new data become available. The path of discovery that leads from question and observation to law or hypothesis to theory, combined with experimental verification of the hypothesis and any necessary modification of the theory, is called the scientific method Figure 1. Chemists study and describe the behavior of matter and energy in three different domains: macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic. These domains provide different ways of considering and describing chemical behavior.
In daily life, this includes the food you eat and the breeze you feel on your face. The macroscopic domain includes everyday and laboratory chemistry, where we observe and measure physical and chemical properties such as density, solubility, and flammability. Some aspects of the microscopic domain are visible through standard optical microscopes, for example, many biological cells. More sophisticated instruments are capable of imaging even smaller entities such as molecules and atoms see Figure 1. However, most of the subjects in the microscopic domain of chemistry are too small to be seen even with the most advanced microscopes and may only be pictured in the mind.
Other components of the microscopic domain include ions and electrons, protons and neutrons, and chemical bonds, each of which is far too small to see.
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The symbolic domain contains the specialized language used to represent components of the macroscopic and microscopic domains. Chemical symbols such as those used in the periodic table , chemical formulas, and chemical equations are part of the symbolic domain, as are graphs, drawings, and calculations. These symbols play an important role in chemistry because they help interpret the behavior of the macroscopic domain in terms of the components of the microscopic domain.
One of the challenges for students learning chemistry is recognizing that the same symbols can represent different things in the macroscopic and microscopic domains, and one of the features that makes chemistry fascinating is the use of a domain that must be imagined to explain behavior in a domain that can be observed. A helpful way to understand the three domains is via the essential and ubiquitous substance of water.
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That water is a liquid at moderate temperatures, will freeze to form a solid at lower temperatures, and boil to form a gas at higher temperatures Figure 1. But some properties of water fall into the microscopic domain—what cannot be observed with the naked eye. The description of water as comprising two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, and the explanation of freezing and boiling in terms of attractions between these molecules, is within the microscopic arena. The formula H 2 O, which can describe water at either the macroscopic or microscopic levels, is an example of the symbolic domain.
The abbreviations g for gas, s for solid, and l for liquid are also symbolic. Want to cite, share, or modify this book?
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This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4. Skip to Content. Chemistry 2e 1. The current government recommendations are outlined in table 2 below. The evidence for nutritional recommendations comes from a range of sources but particular emphasis is placed on COMA reports:. Evidence for increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables to 5 a day is provided by a number of sources.
Skip to main content. Create new account Request new password. You are here 2e - Health and Social Behaviour. Health and Social Behaviour: Dietary Reference Values DRVs , current dietary goals, recommendations, guidelines and the evidence for them Three main types of dietary recommendations may be produced by public health agencies: dietary allowances DRVs , dietary goals, and dietary guidelines.
Dietary Reference Values DRVs The human body needs a variety of nutrients and the amount of each nutrient needed is called the nutrient requirement. DRVs are a series of estimates of the amount of energy and nutrients needed by different groups of healthy people in the UK population; they are not recommendations or goals for individuals.
Infants First months of life period of rapid growth and development breast milk or infant formula contains all the nutrients required. Pregnancy Increased requirements for some nutrients. Lactation Increased requirement for energy, protein, all the vitamins except B6 , calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, copper and selenium. Navigation Principles of nutrition, nutritional surveillance and assessment in specific populations including its short and long term effects The influence of malnutrition in disease aetiology, pregnancy, and in growth and development Markers of nutritional status, nutrition and food The basis for nutritional interventions and assessment of their impact Social, behavioural and other determinants of the choice of diet Dietary Reference Values DRVs , current dietary goals, recommendations, guidelines and the evidence for them The effects on health of different diets e.
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Identifying and managing internal and external stakeholder interests. Management models and theories associated with motivation, leadership and change management, and their application to practical situations and problems. Dietary Reference Values DRVs , current dietary goals, recommendations, guidelines and the evidence for them. Section 1: The theoretical perspectives and methods of enquiry of the sciences concerned with human behaviour.
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vortexsport.ru/wp-content/map24.php No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book details Author : James L. Description this book See how energy therapies can normalize physiology and restore your patients health! If you want to download this book, click link in the last page 5.