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ISBN Peer-to-peer storage networks based on distributed hash tables are attractive for their efficient use of resources and result- ing performance. The placement and subsequent efficient location of replicas in such systems remain open problems, especially 1 the requirement to update replicated content, 2 working in the absence of global information, and 3 determination of the locations in a dynamic system without introducing single points of failure. The possibility of enumerating and addressing individual replicas allows dynamic updates as well as superior performance without burdening the network with state informa- tion, yet taking advantage of locality information when available.

We believe that the new IT capabilities will eventually and in the not-too-distant future transform the field of historical social sciences into what the sociologist Randall Collins termed rapid-discovery science Collins , although it should be noted that Collins himself was sceptical that such transformation is likely. It is our hope that Seshat: the Global History Databank will be one of the key mechanisms by which such a transformation will be effected. Or, as with Martin Armstrong 's Socrates platform which offers "unique perspective and tools intended to help individuals and organizations better research and interpret the global economic and political environment" and his ECM Economic Confidence Model , the uncanny precision in forecasting macro-economic and political events of which is widely known - different market cycles are observed simultaneously and at the same time with international capital flows.

Zooming out and framing things both locally and globally at the same time, while also not losing sight of the historical past converges in such a way that it immediately reveals things previously hidden and the faulty reasoning that static models combined with only partial information and insufficient knowledge often result in.

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By setting up a general computational framework capable of incorporating all kinds of diverse data flows, structures and frameworks e. As the system branches and expands and more people, organizations and institutions contribute, make use of, experiment with and enrich it, more variables and indicators enter, novel associative connections emerge and a more fluid sense of how things work in motion develops.

Ceptr could easily incorporate wealths of already available data, knowledge bases and information and combine it with other flows in motion, similarly giving rise to such ubiquitous computation platforms and apps as an open public service and space for collaborative efforts and storage of validated, structured data.

A number of interesting initiatives and projects are slowly forming around Holochain and Holo, along with partnerships indicative of the direction of development. Another major partnership was formed with Promether - an Adaptive Symbiotic Platform ASP that implements all the networking, security, and anonymization functionality and modules that applications need to protect their data described in more detail in their lengthy white paper. Below are some other projects beginning to develop around and build upon the Holochain foundation and philosophy.

And as the ecosystem expands, so do the possibilities of creatively building composable applications from the rich pool of what is available. The Synthetic-Collective Intelligence and sense-making at scale being the emergent properties of this expansion emergence is a defining property of complex adaptive systems.

Sacred Capital , a Singapore-based startup, takes the idea of reputational currency as value and works to provide Reputation Interchange across different ecosystems, allowing that those reputations be ported and 'staked' across systems, creating feedback loops of reinforcement of desirable behaviors. Essentially, this isn't so much about "monetizing" reputation as such per se, but rather to do with giving reputation money-like qualities or defining reputation as a form of wealth. Ulex is an open-source legal system of polycentric law for special zones and jurisdictions e.

What Is Hashing?

Holochain appears to be ideally suited for the needs of such decentralized legal system. Research in large institutes is not guided by Truth and Reason but by the most rewarding fashion, and the great minds of today increasingly turn to where the money is - which means military matters. But don't worry about that. Just do what you want.

If you know what you want to do and advocate for it, no one will put any energy into stopping you. The distribution of research has become firmly interwoven with various commercial interests and the increasing influence and authority of reputation in academia. The Omni project aims to break this deadlock by disengaging research output from profit and rank of status. Omni is not a journal, repository or a publisher, but rather a public digital space, a kind of "scholarly commons" for academics sharing their work without barriers, quickly reaching their intended audiences and receiving valuable feedback.

More detailed information about the project can be found here. Junto is a non-profit initiative dedicated to reinventing healthier forms of social networking, not susceptible to political and profit-driven manipulation, but fostering more authentically human atmosphere free from the pollution and toxicity that has come to increasingly define social networking platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. We believe the forms we communicate through are just as important as the message itself.

Peer-to-peer (P2P) Networks - Basic Algorithms

Other initiatives include a distributed, holographic Reddit ending moderator abuse, Sybil attacks and counting of votes as objective indicators , a customizable dashboard for integrating all social networking apps that allows for better tracking of impact, influence, developing learning capacities and building communities and their respective currencies, and many more along those lines. Founding member and Holo. These currencies form the nervous system of a social organism, and they are the best way to observe and to modify its pattern of awareness.

The implications of this capability to generate globally visible patterns should be evident.


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Historically, the emergence of information systems of symbolic representation, forms of writing, bureaucracy and record-keeping are among the categories of variables defining social complexity and the trajectories of cultural evolution which biological evolution tends to follow. As the Ceptr paper on Grammatic Capacities states:. It is worth citing the blog post "How does Schizoanalysis Work? If this area is machinic, it is because Guattari always wrote with one foot in the future; moving forward in time, the nature of knowledge and how it is applied will always take on more and more technological and computational relations.

I would argue that the machinic phylum is synonymous with the General Intellect identified by Marx and elaborated to a higher degree by the Italian Autonomists. Knowledge is a social body, owned by no individual, and like desire especially like desire! It does not have to be technical knowledge, but any form of knowledge or flight of ideas that is produced, put out into the world, and used by others to build upon. The positioning of each space in the cartography shows how one relates to the next, first with how the two on the left-hand side couple with each other, just as the ones of the right do the same.

At the same time, there is an explicit relationship between the two across the top, as there are across the bottom. Thus there exists a kind of feedback loop between the two: manifestations of the phylum trigger responses in our incorporeal universes, which in turn can add to the social knowledge body or General Intellect. Likewise, it takes various flows money flows, language flows, genetic flows, commodity flows to build up an existential territory; no territory comes into being spontaneously. This ecosophic model is itself composed of three ecological scales first proposed in the s by Gregory Bateson : the mind, the society, and the environment.

The stratification of each as a separate entity, however, is misleading; following the ongoing discourse started in conjunction with Deleuze, the three scales are indistinguishable from one to the next. Environment shapes the mind, the mind shapes society, society shapes the environment, society shapes the mind, and so on. The mind itself, drawing on Bateson, operates in its own ecology, as does the incorporeal shifts and manifestations that arise within the mind in relation to external factors.

All this is obviously a radical departure from the widely held views and perceptions of "cryptocurrencies" and what constitutes value in society, such that it catalyzes emergent systemic patterns of behavior i. It might be helpful to try and better elucidate the Deleuzian concept of the "rhizome" at this point.

Deleuze and Guattari use the terms "rhizome" and "rhizomatic" to describe theory and research allowing for multiple, non-hierarchical entry and exit points in data representation and interpretation. A rhizome works with planar and trans-species connections in contrast with vertical and linear connections. Examples of mutualism in biology are given the orchid and the wasp , where two different species form a multiplicity i.

Or horizontal gene transfer and hybridization. As a model for culture, the rhizome resists the organizational structure of the root-tree system which charts causality along chronological lines and looks for the original source of 'things' and looks towards the pinnacle or conclusion of those 'things. Holochain thus puts emphasis on the nature of the medium, in the McLuhan sense of how the medium of technology shapes the perception of reality. Ceptr is a proposition for another vision of the Internet, structured around Holochain as an unencloseable carrier for direct peer-to-peer communication that evades centralized structures and control.

Also, neither of the two employs a blockchain architecture or has any form of enforced global consensus. IOTA, however, is rather geared towards the future landscape of interconnected IoT devices and meshnets of a near future machine-to-machine economy and as such, the interfacing human agent is more of an afterthought, rather than center of focus , while Holochain is on the other hand conceived as technology for fueling sophisticated social applications, facilitating social organization, collaboration and collective-sense making or, also, as a framework for building commons and meeting fundamental human needs.

Holochain official site and subreddit.


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Distributed Hash Table

Movers Track most recent market gainers and losers. Recently Added Check most recently added cryptocurrencies to Coinspace. Exchanges Explore top exchanges and global markets. Masternodes Find the list of Masternodes and all relevant information about them. Recent Exchange Listings Find out latest exchange listings and their impact. Ethereum Explorer Dive in Ethereum blockchain. Latest Transactions Check and track important transactions. Latest Blocks Find and explore the latest blocks.

Cryptocurrency News Find the latest top cryptocurrency news. Altcoin News Latest news related to altcoins. Global The most world-changing or global-affection related stories. Ethereum News Most important news related to Ethereum. Legal News related to cryptocurrency regulation globally. Exchanges The freshest news about top marketplaces. F14 uses a novel strategy that acts like something similar to reference-counted tombstones. A tombstone roughly corresponds to an empty slot with the overflow bit set. The overflow bit makes searches faster, because the search for a key can be stopped at a full slot whose overflow bit is clear, even if the following slot is not empty.

Our extension to the overflow bit idea is to count the number of active overflows. This is possible because even though they accomplish the same purpose as a tombstone, overflow bits have a different life cycle. They are set when a displaced key is inserted rather than when the key that did the displacing is removed. Each F14 chunk uses 1 byte of metadata to count the number of keys that wanted to be placed in the chunk but are currently stored in a different chunk. When a key is erased, it decrements the overflow counter on all the chunks that are on its probe sequence, cleaning them up.

Reducing memory waste is directly useful. Two common strategies for hash table memory layouts are indirect typically with a pointer stored in the main array and direct with the memory of the keys and values incorporated directly into the main hash array. Direct storage algorithms must use probing for conflict resolution unless they store additional metadata. F14 exposes pointer-indirect F14Node and direct storage F14Value versions, as well as the less common index-indirect F14Vector.

We can examine the trade-offs of different layouts by separating memory usage into categories. Data space is proportional to the size of the keys and values; metadata space is independent of the key and value types. Categories of memory use:. Below are the overheads for hash sets holding 8-byte integers. On the other hand, for small elements like these, the metadata overhead is quite high. Each data item is the same size as a pointer, so the metadata ranges from 2x to 3x the size of the data.

F14ValueSet stores the values inline, like a probing sentinel-based table. It has the same data waste from early allocation, which is intrinsic to inline storage, but has much less data waste due to using a higher maximum load factor. F14ValueSet achieves this memory-efficiency win while also avoiding the need for sentinels. Filtering works fine even in a completely full chunk, so we are careful to use a maximum load factor of percent when there is only one chunk. In fact, the filtering step means that we can support every capacity from 0 to 14 without any special cases in the lookup or insertion logic.

If reserve is not called, the initial rehashes occur after sizes 2 and 6. If an initial capacity is available, we can be even more memory-efficient for small tables. The relative space overhead of metadata is reduced for bigger values. Here are the same four graphs when storing std::string. F14 also provides an array-indirect memory policy.

F14Vector stores values in a densely packed vector with a 4-byte index in the main hash array. When a key is removed, the last vector element is moved into its place and the corresponding index entry is adjusted. F14Vector provides very fast iteration and destruction.

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For large values it is also more memory-efficient than F14Value, because the data vector can be sized to have no load factor waste. When the final size is known in advance, we get further savings by sizing the data vector and chunk array independently. This lets us keep the number of chunks a power of two, which is important for lookup performance, while entirely eliminating data waste.

The graphs let us compare the memory efficiency at a particular size, but what about general conclusions? For byte keys, F14ValueSet uses less memory to hold 24 keys than F14VectorSet , but is it more efficient on average? This lets us weight the memory overheads independent of the exact rehash points. The following plot shows the average memory efficiency as a function of the size of the entries.

These microtable benchmarks have code to compute this graph. Both F14Vector and F14Value provide excellent performance. Since our goal is to make a good default, we decided to splice them together into a hybrid storage policy, called F14Fast. When converting existing code to F14, we encountered both unit test failures and production crashes. A majority of these were tests that hard-coded a specific iteration order, or code that implicitly relied on the specific behavior of a hash table implementation. In this mode, F14 randomly chooses among all the empty slots in a chunk when inserting a new key.