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Due to this problem, mankind nowadays has concern about the potential adverse effects to the chemical industries on the environment, although the response in some parts of the world has been much faster and more intense than in others. The colour manufacturing industry represents a relatively small part of the overall chemical industry. Dyes and pigments are highly visible material.

Thus even minor release into the environment may cause the appearance of colour, an example in open waters, which attracts the critical attention of public and local authorities. There is thus the requirement on industry to minimise environmental release of colour, even in cases where a small but visible release might be considered as toxicologically rather innocuous. A major source of release of colour into the environment is associated with the incomplete exhaustion of dyes onto textile fibre from an aqueous dyeing process and the need to reduce the amount of residual dye in textile effluent has thus become a major concern in recent years.

An alternative approach to addressing the problem of colour in textile dyeing effluent has involved the development of effluent treatment methods to remove colour. These methods inevitably add to the cost of the overall process and some present the complication associated with the possible toxicity of degradation products.

Textile industries are rapidly increasing by there numbers in most of the countries around the world in the recent years. These industries have shown a remarkable increase in the use of synthetic complex organic dyes as the coloring material. Dyes consist a broad spectrum of different chemical structures, primarily based on substituted aromatic and heterocyclic groups such as aromatic amine C6H5-NH2 , which is a suspected carcinogen, Phenyl C6H5-CH2 and Naphthale NO2-OH , the only thing in common is their ability to absorb light in the visible region. Large amounts of chemically different dyes are employed for various industrial applications including textile dyeing.

Azo dyes constitute the largest and most diverse group of dyes used in commercial applications. The removal of color from wastewater is relatively more important than the removal of soluble colorless organic substances, which usually contribute the major fraction of biochemical oxygen demand BOD. Because of the low biodegradability of dyes, conventional biological treatment processes are inefficient in treating dye wastewaters.

Even though some of the above mentioned methods are effective, most of them suffer from the short comings such as excess usage of chemicals, sludge disposal, expensive operating cost, ineffective color reduction for sulfonated azo dyes and poor sensitivity towards shock load conditions.

Biological decolonization is employed under either aerobic or anaerobic environment.

Studies on the Degradation of Textile Dye by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

A number of reports discourage the azo dye decolonization by microorganism under anaerobic conditions as it leads to the formation of corresponding aromatic amines. Even though their reductive cleavage is responsible for color removal the formation of aromatic amines is highly undesired as they are reported to be carcinogenic. In the presence of oxygen, aromatic amines can be degraded. The restrictive environmental legislation, the ecological problem and the high cost of conventional technologies for dye house effluent treatment have resulted in the search of economically viable and technologically suitable wastewater treatment plants.

It was reported that some anaerobic bacteria can biodegrade dyestuffs by azo reductase activity. However the effluent from biodegradation of dyestuffs could be toxic. Also, reverse colorization may take place when the degradation products are exposed to oxygen [1]. Because of these problems, full-scale application of bacterial degradation is limited. Only a few research works have been reported on aerobic degradation of azodyes. Therefore, a need exists to develop a novel treatment technology for textile dye effluent treatment to ensure environmental protection from these harmful pollutants.

In recent years, a number of studies have focused on some microorganism which is to biodegrade and biosorb dyes in wastewaters. A wide variety of micro -organisms capable of decolorizing a wide range of dyes include some bacteria, fungi, yeast etc. The process of biodegradation may be different for different substances but generally, biodegradable substances decomposed into CO2, CH4, and water as the final products. In nature, all the materials have the capability to be broken down into their raw material, or elements. However, many man-made petrochemical products e.

There is no universal method for the removal of color from dye waste; the alternatives depend upon the type of dye wastewater. As the characteristics of dye wastewater are very variable, many different physical, chemical and biological treatment methods have been employed for its treatment [2]. Fungi Biodegradation: White-rot fungi are those organisms that are able to degrade lignin, the structural polymer found in woody plants [3].

Colour in dyehouse effluent

White rot fungi produce unique extracellular oxidative enzymes laccase, lignin peroxidase, phenol oxidase, Mn-dependent peroxidase and Mn-independent peroxidase that degrade lignin, as well as related compounds found in explosive contaminated materials, pesticides, and toxic wastes. The most widely studied white-rot fungus, in regards to xenobiotic degradation, e. This fungus is capable of degrading dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs and other Chloro-organics [4]. In addition to P. Chrysosporium , other white-rot fungi, also capable of decolorizing dyes, include Coriolus versicolor, Trametes versicolor , Coriolus versicolor [5] and Funalia trogii [6].

In fungal decolonization of dye wastewater, these fungi can be classified into two kinds according to their life state: living cells to biodegrade and biosorb dyes and dead cells fungal biomass to adsorb dyes.


Figure 2: Fungi a Phanerochaete chrysosporium b Rhizopus oryzae. For living cells, the major mechanism is biodegradation because they can produce the lignin modifying enzymes, laccase, manganese peroxides MnP and lignin peroxides LiP to mineralize synthetic lignin or dyes [9]. However, the relative contributions of LiP, MnP and laccase to the decolonization of dyes may be different for each fungus. For the fungus P. Chrysosporium , LiP was found to be responsible for the decolonization of the dyes [10, 11].

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Methods of Dye Removal from Dye House Effluent—An Overview

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